Life cycle - a chart showing the project from start to end
Phases - how the life cycle is defined. The PMBOK Guide suggests 5: initiating, planning, executing, montoring/controlling, and closing. Many industries and companies add more.
Milestones - significant achievements or deliverables within the project plan. These are 0 effort and duration markers in the project plan. E.g. marking the end of a phase (though it is likely there will be more milestones along the way).
Deliverables - the product(s) of a task, activity, or phase of a project.